Yazarın Ağustos 16, 2017 tarihli son yazısı:

The Risks of Turkey during the Modernization and Westernization Process (2)

Opinion: Prof. Dr. Hüsamettin İNAÇ*
In our time, we are confronted with the same type of discussions and with similar ways of (collective) behaviour in relation with ‘tradition’ versus ‘modernity’, albeit that now these discussions are even more confused than in the past, among other things as a consequence of the rise of ‘post-modern’ thinking.
There can be three important reasons why Turkey has risks in modernization process in spite of all efforts and attempts to be modernized: First reason is the lack of planing, competence and qualification. As a matter of fact, Turkey has wasted time, power, energy, and resources due to the clientelism, planlessness, failure in finding her targets, and imprudence in determining the education in line with the targets and organizing her potential rationally. Second reason is the lack of democracy interrupted by the military interventions witnessed almost in every decade until the 15 July 2016 civil occupation attempt. In fact, every coup d’état deprived Turkey from various opportunities and at least a decade from the progress. As it is known, economic development needs a high level democracy. Today it is proved that the enhencement of democracy is strictly relevant with the growing economy. The last reason as an extention of both ones is the need of bureaucratic modernization which prevents the competition among the officialdoms. As a result, Turkey is supposed to learn to have modernization not over the militarism and authoritanism but innovative, creative, civil and leading modernization.

3. The distinctive features of Turkish modernization:
1- Turkish modernization has followed a course of development far from the democratic framework. This has led to the understanding that the democracy is just free elections made at regular intervals. This is one of the main reasons why Turkish society is not mature enough to tolerate the “others”.
2- Turkish modernization has been realized on the basis of women, which cannot be compared with any other modernization example (Russian, Japanese, etc.). A new image of women has been created and this new image has been accepted as the face and the most basic indicator of modernization.
3- While the modernization was carried out through political leaders (Mustafa Kemal Atatürk), created figures (Keriman Halis), or through those who claimed to be protectors and bearers of modernization (Kenan Evren), the opposition to modernization was carried out without any individual figures through the society.
4- Modernization, as it is known, has appeared at the end of the historical processes of the West. Since the Turkish modernization was not a result of the historical process itself, the results produced by the modernization in the West did not apply to Turkey. The phenomenon of individualization in the West is confused with selfishness in the modernizing countries like Turkey.

«As the “Modern SocIety” Is a western orIgIn, of course, the fact that the modernIzIng socIetIes follow Western socIetIes Is normal. But that does not mean that the best of everythIng Is In the west. »

5- As is known, the Japanese modernization was realized through “imitation” and succeeded in great success. Turkey has started with a “follow” (the west) way and has shifted to “imitation” from time to time. Today, this is one of the basic reasons underlying the partial success of Turkish modernization.
6- The military’s imitation of its role as the pioneer, guardian and proprietor of modernization and the perception of the influence of the army in every area led the opposition of modernization to meet on the roof of congregations and sects.
7- As is known, the direction of Turkish modernization has always been the west, and this has been criticized at many studies. As the “Modern Society” is a western origin, of course, the fact that the modernizing societies follow Western societies is normal. But that does not mean that the best of everything is in the west. The belief that the best of everything is in the west and constant emphasis on this mindset in Turkish modernization has led to the categorization of all countries and societies outside the United States, France, and the UK, all in the same place. This understanding has led Turkey to move away from a large part of the world and to stay away from the developments at there.
8- Despite all criticisms, Turkish modernization has created a “nation” that it wants and it is evaluated as successful when it is taken into consideration from this point of view.
9- It has been dealt with in a wide variety of studies that the Turkish modernization is broken from the society and carried out from top to bottom. The fact that modernization took place in this framework and the imposition of modernization hard by the army led to the break of the connection of the state and nation. People who cannot find what they are looking for in their own state have either gone to search for informal structures or wanted to go other states.
10- In Turkey, modernity is still seriously questioned and criticized, but the west already has pasted to the postmodern phase and this has made it more difficult for the two sides to meet in common discourse and action, and deepens the dilemmas between the two sides.

4.Conclusion:
Turkey which has an imperial past and glorious history today fall into the inferiority complex and feeling of dissatisfaction because of persistent loss and keeping behind. Therefore, the Turkish intellectual always seeks the answers for the question of how Turkey develop, grow, and progress for two centuries? Is it the matter of schooling, per capita income or unfair distribution of income which create the dissatisfaction and feeling of inadequacy.There can be three important reasons why Turkey has risks in modernization process in spite of all efforts and attempts to be modernized:
-First reason is the lack of planing, competence and qualification. As a matter of fact, Turkey has wasted time, power, energy, and resources due to the clientelism, planlessness, failure in finding her targets, and imprudence in determining the education in line with the targets and organizing her potential rationally.
-Second reason is the lack of democracy interrupted by the military interventions witnessed almost in every decade until the 15 July 2016 civil occupation attempt. In fact, every coup d’état deprived Turkey from various opportunities and at least a decade from the progress. As it is known, economic development needs a high level democracy. Today it is proved that the enhencement of democracy is strictly relevant with the growing economy.
-The last reason as an extention of both ones is the need of bureaucratic modernization which prevents the competition among the officialdoms. As a result, Turkey is supposed to learn to have modernization not over the militarism and authoritanism but innovative, creative, civil and leading modernization.

*Head of Political Science and International Relations; Dean of Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Dumlupinar University / husamettininac@yahoo.com

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